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Purple Rosa Flower


Purple Rosa Flower

Rosa


The most widely spread, grown and the most lovely plant is the family of  the genus Rosa, the type genus for the rose (Rosaceae), is made up of over 100 species of mainly deciduous shrubs and scrambling climbers found in the northern temperate and subtropical zones. The wild species of the genus have simple 5-petalled “purple” flowers that can be fragrant or not. Brightly colored, nearly dry fruits follow, they are known as hips or heps and are very rich in vitamin C. Rose foliage is usually pinnate, with a few large, toothed leaflets or sometimes many small leaflets. For garden purposes rose species are not classified in groups as many other genera.


However the garden hybrids, are divided in groups depending on their parentage and growth form. Here are included very well-known types, such as: Cluster-flowered (Floribunda), Gallica, Large-flowered (Hybrid Tea), Bourbon, and Miniature, and also the groups that are not so widely cultivated such as Portland, Noisette and Moss. Roses were for centuries cultivated for garden use and now there are a lot of varieties of forms and all flower colors except blue. Roses have been so widely used as symbols and have had so many associations, that there is almost no opportunity to single one out, but it says something for the popularity of roses, that a rose is  as old as the Apothecary's rose (Rosa Gallica 'Officinalis') the original red rose of Lancaster, which dates from before 1450, is still grown till today. A rose that is loved so much lasts forever, though the continuous cultivation and introduction of new hybrids doesn’t stop, which, by many other names, are "still as sweet."


Top Tip

To maintain strong healthy growth, a simple “tidying up” of dead wood and pruning for size can be just as effective as stricter pruning regimes.

Cultivation


Only the toughest roses can survive in severe continental winters  though most roses are very frost hardy,. In order to minimize the risk of fungal diseases and to promote heavy flowering they need a very sunny and well-ventilated position. Roses need moist, fertile, humus-rich soil, and in most areas  where is extra water they benefit from while in flower. Commercially grown roses are most often budded onto specially grown rootstocks. It is quite an easy process but it needs suitable seedlings of cutting-grown stocks., Not all the types produce good root systems so the winter hardwood and summer half-hardened cuttings will have to strike. Usually the seed needs to be stratificated, and hybrids will not come true to rose types from seed.


Contrary to common belief, all roses, whether species roses, old garden roses, or modem cultivars, arc easily increased, even by gardeners with only limited space.  Roses are propagated in basically three ways. Cuttings are easiest for the gardener, although they are not recommended for producing high quality plants from most modern hybrid tea or floribunda roses. Grafting or T-budding roses, methods favored by commercial growers, require some planning and rootstocks that have been grown on in advance, but they usually produce more vigorous plants. Raising roses from seeds can be challenging and is usually most reliable with speciesroses. However, the rose is a classic candidate for hybridization, and some amateur rose growers have produced worthwhile cultivars.


Taken Cuttings


Hardwood cuttings are most successful from miniature, groundcovcr, and species roses, as well as some older Rosa wichurana (syn. R. wichuraiana) ramblers; they are taken in much the same way as for other shrubs. Although a controlled environment and a little care are required, increasing roses from softwood cuttings has proved very effective for some of the more difficult spccics and cultivars such as R. banksiae and R. 'Mermaid', as well as for mass-production of pot roses.


Hardwood Cuttings of Roses


First prepare a slit trench in semi-shade, about Sin (20cm) deep, and sprinkle some sharp sand along the bottom to improve the drainage. Gather suitable shoots, cutting each at an angle just above an outward-facing bud. Place the shoots in damp newspaper or moss to prevent them from drying out before they can be prepared. Divide the stems into 9in (23cm) lengths, removing all but the top two leaves and cutting through a bud at the base of each cutting. There is no need to leave a heel. Dip the base of the cuttings first in water, then in hormone rooting powder, and place in the trench 4-6in (10-15cm) apart. Fill in the trench and hill it up so that the leaves arc at soil level. Firm and water in well. In dryconditions, protect the cuttings with black plastic mulch. Rooted cuttings may be planted out in a year (see above). Quicker results may be obtained by rooting 3in (8cm) cuttings in rooting medium in 3in (8cm) pots under cover, supplying bottom heat of approximately 21°C (70°F) in a closed case or on a propagating blanket. The rooted cuttings should be ready for planting out by the following spring. This works particularly well for most groundcover and miniature roses.


Softwood Cuttings of Roses


Cuttings should be taken from plants that have been encouraged to produce young wood by pruning them hard in early spring, preferably in a protected environment such as a greenhouse. The first new shoots from garden plants may also be used as cuttings, if they have not been exposed ю herbicides. This simple technique docs not work for hybrid teas and grandifloras, however.


Early to midspring is the best time to take softwood stem-tip cuttings, when new shoots are only l'/t-2in (4-5cm) long and need no trimming. Internodal stem cuttings from longer soft shoots may be taken in summer (see facing page). Treat all cuttings with systemic fungicide to prevent rot and hormone rooting compound to aid rooting. When inserting the cuttings into the medium or rockwool, ensure they do not touch. Maintain high humidity around the cuttings by tenting them in a plastic bag or placing them in a closed case or mist unit. Provide bottom heat of about 81°F (27°C) at first, then after four weeks or so, reduce it to 64-70°F (18-21°C). Harden off the rooted cuttings by gradually reducing the time they are covered. Pot them singly into 3in (8cm) pots in a soilless mix. A reasonably sized plant can be produced in this way in two months or so. Cut back the young plants by about 50 percent to ensure bushy growth. The prunings provide very good material for further propagation - this is a common practice in commercial nurseries.


Name

Flower color

Blooming Season

Flower Fragrance

Plant Height

Plant Width

Hardiness Zone

Frost Tolerance

Rosa
glauca

Pink fading to
white in center

Summer

Yes

6ft
(1.8 m)

6ft
(1.8 m)

3-10

Yes

Rosa
moyesii

Deep red

Summer

No

10 ft
(3 m)

10 ft
(3 m)

5-10

Yes

Rosa
rugosa

Light to
deep pink

Summer to
autumn

Yes

5-8 ft
(1.5-2.4 m)

5-8 ft
(1.5-2.4 m)

2-10

Yes

Rosa, Modern, Clusterflowered
(Floribunda

Various

Summer to
autumn

Yes

3-5 ft
(0.9-1.5 m)

2-4 ft
(0.6-1.2 m)

5-11

Yes

Rosa, Modern,
Hybrid Rugosa

White, pink,
yellow, red

Summer to
autumn

Yes

3-7 ft
(0.9-2 m)

3-7 ft
(0.9-2 m)

3-10

Yes

Rosa, Modern, Largeflowered
(Hybrid Tea

Various

Summer to
autumn

Yes

4-7 ft
(1.2-2 m)

3-5 ft
(0.9-1.5 m

4-11

Yes

Rosa, Modern,
Miniature

Various

Summer to
autumn

Yes

8-30 in
(20-75 cm)

8-18 in
(20-45 cm)

5-11

Yes

Rosa, Modern,
Modern Shrub

Various

Summer to
autumn

Yes

4-8 ft
tl .2-2.4 m)

4-8 ft
tl .2-2.4 m)

4-10

Yes

Rosa, Modern, Pati (Dwarf Cluster-flowered)

Various

summer to
autumn

No

2ft
(0.6 m)

6 ft
(1.8 m)

4-11

Yes

Rosa, Modern,
Polyantha

Various

summer to
autumn

No

24 in
(60 cm)

18 in
(45 cm

3-10

Yes

Rosa, Old,
Alba

White,
pale pink

mid-summer

Yes

6-8 ft
(1.8-2.4 m)

4-6 ft
(1.2-1.8 m)

4-10

Yes

Rosa, Old,
Bourbon

White,
pink, red

summer to
early autumn

Yes

4-7 ft
(1.2-2 m)

3-6 ft
(0.9-1,8 m)

6-10

Yes

Rosa, Old,
China

Pink, red

summer to
autumn

Yes

3-6 ft
(0.9-1.8 m)

3-6 ft
(0.9-1.8 m)

7-11

Yes

Rosa, Old,
Damask

white,
pale pink

spring or
summer

Yes

3-7 ft
(0.9-2 m)

3-5 ft
(0.9-1.5 m)

5-10

Yes

Rosa, Old,
Gallica

pink, red,
pinkish purple

spring or
summer

Yes

4-6 ft
(1.2-1.8 m)

3-5 ft
(0.9-1.5 m)

5-10

Yes

Rosa, Old,
Hybrid Perpetual

white, pink,
red

spring to
autumn

Yes

4-7 ft
(1.2-2 m)

3-5 ft
(0.9-1.5 m)

5-10

Yes

Rosa, Old,
Moss

white, pink

summer

Yes

4-6 ft
(1.2-1.8 m)

4-6 ft
(1.2-1.8 m)

5-10

Yes

Rosa, Old,
Tea

cream, yellow,
pink, red

summer to
autumn

Yes

4-7 ft
(1.2-2 m)

3-5 ft
(0.9-1.5 m)

7-11

Yes